The Science of Revive

INTRODUCTION TO THE SCIENCE OF REVIVE®

Poolrite pioneered the research to understand magnesium absorption through skin. 

Electrolytes such as magnesium, potassium, sodium, calcium and chlorine are critical for normal functioning and homeostasis of the human body. The importance of such minerals as micronutrients and the consequences of their deficiency or imbalance have been established through a number of scientific studies 1. Even though diet and oral supplementations are the most common sources of these micronutrients, topical mineral therapy is gaining importance as a widely suggested form of treatment for various skin and systemic disorders.  Such claims relating to potential health benefits are anecdotal, and are debatable mainly due to ambiguity surrounding the skin’s permeability of mineral ions. Transdermal route of administration of mineral ions are vaguely understood owing to their permeability characteristics through the stratum corneum (SC), otherwise called the skin barrier. In order for topically applied minerals to effectively involve in biological processes, transport of its ions across the skin barrier is a critical precondition. 

Extensive studies have been conducted over the last few decades to understand the ability of mineral ions to permeate through skin leading to systemic effects. A study conducted to understand the skin permeation to anions showed that iodine can permeate through skin to greater extent when compared to other halides2. In another study relating to transdermal absorption of boron, it was found that topically applied borax was absorbed by the skin. This study concluded that even though borax was absorbed through the skin, it was significantly lower than required dietary intake3. However, it could be postulated that regular exposure to such levels of boron could accumulate in the body to supplement dietary intake, without posing any risk of toxicity. Among all the ions of interest, the efficacy of magnesium ions to permeate through human skin is highly debated. Even though several studies showed increased magnesium levels in serum after topical application, its ability to permeate the stratum corneum was still doubted.

As an effort to understand further, Poolrite pioneered and initiated research on transdermal magnesium permeability through human skin in the swimming pool industry. Based on empirical data, this study scientifically proved and visually demonstrated that magnesium ions can permeate the skin barrier (Figure 1). It was also found that magnesium permeation was dependant on time of exposure and salt concentration in aqueous solution (Figure 2), additionally a significant contribution from hair follicles was also observed (Figure 3)

 

Figure 1. Magnesium ions penetrate through skin but the extent depends on stratum corneum thickness. A) Images from three donors showed increased fluorescence in tape stripped (TS) and SC intact skin treated with 5 mM MgCl2 solution for 30 min compared to skin untreated with MgCl2. B) Histograms showing normalized fluorescence intensity in viable epidermis in each donor. Scale bar = 50 um. 

Figure 2. Magnesium ion permeation at varying times and concentrations. A) Representative images indicating penetration of magnesium ions at varying times and concentrations. B) The skin was treated with 52 mM and 1.9 M MgCl2 solutions for 5, 15 and 60 minutes. (* p<0.05, ** p<0.01). 

 

Figure 3. Hair follicles significantly contribute to magnesium permeation. A) Plugged skin (plugged region shown in blue). B) Unplugged skin sections allow penetration of magnesium ions. C) Increased penetration of magnesium ions in unplugged skin, (* p<0.05). 

Benefits of swimming in a Revive pool

Revive provides numerous health benefits starting from your first swim, and continues to improve your overall wellbeing. With average pool use of thirty minutes every alternate day, your body typically absorbs certain levels of essential minerals through the skin. Revive blend is formulated such that the minerals thus absorbed are stored within the body, to help maintaining the balance. We deduced the cumulative effect of absorbing such minerals on different aspects of health from hundreds of scientific studies. As a result, we developed this ultimate mineral blend not only for your pool, but to largely benefit your wellbeing.

Moisturises skin, reduces fatigue and relaxes muscle. 

Revive’s formulation is rich in magnesium that instantly helps moisturise your skin. It was found that exposing human skin to aqueous solution of magnesium increases the expression of a protein called filaggrin4. Filaggrin plays an important role in epidermal homeostasis and undergoes further breakdown to form natural moisturizing factors (NMF) that are critical for water retention in skin5,6. Studies have reported low magnesium levels in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and improvement in energy and emotional status upon regular magnesium administration7. Increased levels of magnesium have shown to relax muscles by reducing myoplasmic calcium levels8. It is likely that swimming in the Revive pool could relax the muscles and reduces fatigue in users within the first week of its use.

Improves skin barrier function

Revive’s formulation contains essential minerals ions such as magnesium and potassium in dermatologically relevant concentrations that are known to significantly improve skin barrier function and protect against damages caused by irritants4,9,10. Magnesium is required for activation of an enzyme, Rab-geranylgeranyltransferase, that is important for Rab protein modification resulting in lamellar secretion and terminal differentiation11. It has been reported that magnesium concentrations are higher in the stratum corneum than other regions of the epidermis, suggesting that magnesium ions have an important role in epidermal differentiation.

Helps restore electrolyte balance

Electrolytes are electrically charged minerals present in biological fluids that create a chemical and energy gradient across cell membrane, to generate signals that trigger important biological reactions. In most cases, the ionic interaction is specific to a reaction; however, they are interdependent in the perspective of an overall scheme of events that keep the biological processes intact. Therefore, it becomes important to regulate the intake of each of these electrolytes and ensure that the balance is maintained. The Sodium-Potassium pump (Na/K ATPase, also called Na/K pump) is a good example to understand the importance of electrolyte balance. The pump is essentially a protein whose function is to move sodium ions out and potassium ions into the cells, which in the process are responsible for generating nerve impulse, maintaining fluid balance, and controlling blood pressure. Sodium and potassium ions play a vital role in forming an electrical potential at the cell membrane to generate signals12. These signals are critical for response to stimuli. The energy to conduct this action is obtained from ATP (energy molecule) that is produced only in the presence of magnesium13. Magnesium ions are also known to affect cell proliferation, energy metabolism and transport of other essential electrolytes14. It is thus important to transport sodium ions back into the cell through an ion exchanger protein to pump out the calcium ions, which are essential for cell signalling and muscle contraction. This is also achieved through an ATP dependant pathway, which requires the presence of magnesium ions, and also to further aid in muscle relaxation15.

Helps improve systemic mineral absorption

In addition to transdermally supplementing essential minerals ions, the Revive formulation delivers boron that enables effective retention of calcium, magnesium and potassium. Studies have shown reduced amount of calcium and magnesium in urinary excretion upon boron supplementation16. In another study it was also shown that magnesium administration in hypokalemic patients seemed to improve potassium retention17.

Helps improve sleep quality and reduce stress 

A study involving 100 subjects conducted over 90 days, with daily uptake of magnesium resulted in significant increase in parasympathetic activity and reduction in stress index18. Studies conducted on mice reveal that magnesium interacts with neurotransmitters resulting in a anxiolytic-like effect19. In another study, it was observed that low serum magnesium levels were associated with high C-reactive protein in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea20. Revive’s formulation supplements a part of magnesium requirement through your skin, to alleviate the deficient condition.

Helps improve bone strength and wound healing

Revive contains optimised levels of boron and magnesium that improves overall It was observed that boron induced mineralization of osteoblasts by regulating the expression of genes related to tissue mineralization and the actions of key hormones (17β-estradiol [E2], testosterone, and vitamin D) involved in bone growth and turnover21. This property of inducing tissue mineralisation also makes boron an essential element for wound healing22,23. Magnesium supplementation have also shown increased bone mineral density thus reducing the risk osteoporosis24.

Helps improve metabolism

Metabolism is collectively the enzyme-catalyzed reactions occurring within the cells to generate cellular energy molecules, build proteins and remove nitrogenous waste. These reactions are essential for the body to maintain homeostasis and respond to various stimuli. Revive’s formulation provides sodium, potassium, magnesium, boron and iodine through dermal absorption that are involved in a number of metabolic pathways resulting in effective functioning of your biological system.  Potassium stimulates insulin and aldosterone secretion and increases Na-K ATPase in the distal nephron, thereby promoting its own redistribution or excretion. It is also to be noted that boron plays an important role in converting vitamin D to its active form which in turn aids in the absorption of calcium in bones25. Boron is also known to increase testosterone levels resulting in increased fat metabolism26.

Helps improve thyroid function

Revive is the only swimming pool mineral formulation that contains Iodine, a trace element essential for thyroid function. Iodine can be transdermally absorbed by the body and is stored in the thyroid gland. Thyroid gland produces thyroxine, which is essential for regulating the metabolic rate, and helps growth and development. Majority of the iodine that enters circulatory system is accumulated in the thyroid gland and is regulated by the hypothalamus based on a negative feedback mechanism. Iodine deficiency could lead to hypothyroidism, leading to low metabolic rate, usually characterised by weight gain.

Helps improve cardiovascular function

Even though sodium and potassium ions are vital for heart function, it is well established that a high sodium/potassium ratio increases blood pressure and risk of cardiovascular disorders. Revive formulation is based on providing a mineral intake with low sodium/potassium ratio as compared to sodium absorption only in traditional salt pools. Potassium is thus known to blunt the effect of sodium chloride on blood pressure, mitigating salt sensitivity and lowering urinary calcium excretion27. Revive formulation also allows significant absorption and retention of magnesium over time. Studies have shown that serum magnesium concentrations are linearly and inversely associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease events28.

In addition to the above benefits, swimming in a pool that’s enriched with Revive consistently over a long period of time helps alleviate symptoms of mineral deficiency and prevents major ailments. Magnesium deficiency could lead to numerous clinical disorders not restricted to cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, osteoporosis and other neurological and inflammatory disorders. 

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3. Wester, R. et al. In VivoPercutaneous Absorption of Boric Acid, Borax, and Disodium Octaborate Tetrahydrate in Humans Compared toin VitroAbsorption in Human Skin from Infinite and Finite Doses. Toxicol. Sci. 45, 42–51 (1998).

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16. Nielsen, F. H., Hunt, C. D., Mullen, L. M. & Hunt, J. R. Effect of dietary boron on mineral, estrogen, and testosterone metabolism in postmenopausal women. FASEB J. 1, 394–7 (1987).

17. Hamill-Ruth, R. J. & McGory, R. Magnesium repletion and its effect on potassium homeostasis in critically ill adults: results of a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Crit. Care Med. 24, 38–45 (1996).

18. Wienecke, E. & Nolden, C. Langzeit-HRV-Analyse zeigt Stressreduktion durch Magnesiumzufuhr. MMW - Fortschritte der Medizin 158, 12–16 (2016).

19. Poleszak, E. Benzodiazepine/GABA(A) receptors are involved in magnesium-induced anxiolytic-like behavior in mice. Pharmacol. Rep. 60, 483–9

20. Karamanli, H., Kizilirmak, D., Akgedik, R. & Bilgi, M. . Serum levels of magnesium and their relationship with CRP in patients with OSA. Sleep Breath. 21, 549–556 (2017).

21. Hakki, S. S., Bozkurt, B. S. & Hakki, E. E. Boron regulates mineralized tissue-associated proteins in osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1). J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 24, 243–250 (2010).

22. Nzietchueng, R. M. et al. Mechanisms implicated in the effects of boron on wound healing. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 16, 239–44 (2002).

23. Nielsen, F. H., Stoecker, B. J. & Penland, J. G. in Advances in Plant and Animal Boron Nutrition 277–290 (Springer Netherlands). doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-5382-5_27

24. Ryder, K. M. et al. Magnesium Intake from Food and Supplements Is Associated with Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Older White Subjects. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 53, 1875–1880 (2005).

25. Miljkovic, D., Miljkovic, N. & McCarty, M. F. Up-regulatory impact of boron on vitamin D function – does it reflect inhibition of 24-hydroxylase? Med. Hypotheses 63, 1054–1056 (2004).

26. Naghii, M. R., Mofid, M., Asgari, A. R., Hedayati, M. & Daneshpour, M.-S. Comparative effects of daily and weekly boron supplementation on plasma steroid hormones and proinflammatory cytokines. J. Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 25, 54–58 (2011).

27. Whelton, P. K. et al. Effects of oral potassium on blood pressure. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. JAMA 277, 1624–32 (1997).

28. Qu, X. et al. Magnesium and the risk of cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. PLoS One 8, e57720 (2013).